Robotics is a field of study stemming from engineering ( mechanical and electrical) and computer science. It combines both fields to assist humans ultimately.
Robotics allows us to construct machines that can do jobs traditionally done by people. Robots are widely used in hazardous locations such as radioactive material inspection, bomb detection, and defusing.
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They are also used to clean and confine deadly pollutants, including radiation, investigate mines and shipwrecks underwater, space and in extreme temperatures where people cannot survive, and hunt for survivors in unstable ruins.
Additionally, robots teach STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) students and are used for home cleaning, business, and security forces.
Robots can be of any shape. Some are made to resemble humans. As a result, some people believe humans will work alongside robots to complete tasks. Many of today’s robots have profited immensely from the study of bio-inspired robotics.
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Some robots need human intervention to operate, while others are self-aware or rather pre-programmed. Though autonomous robots have been envisioned since ancient times, it was not until the twentieth century that significant progress was made in understanding their capabilities and possible applications.
More and more specialists are needed to help develop, program and maintain robots and robotic systems as robotics advances. The complexity of these devices and systems has produced five specialized robotics areas: interaction with the operator, mobility or locomotion, manipulators and effectors, programming, sensing, and perception.
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Interaction with the operator
A robot’s capacity to communicate efficiently with a human controller determines how good it is. When a human and a robot interact, it’s called a Human-Robot Interface (H-R Interface). A person operating can, for example, use pre-programmed commands to communicate with the robot.
A game controller is an example of a primitive Human-Robot Interface (HRI). Player commands can then be carried out by the system in the game if desired.
An industrial touchscreen computer on equipment or in a centralized control room is also a kind of HRI in the manufacturing industry. The person controlling the computer can provide commands to the conveyor or other device on the production floor.
HRIs require a significant deal of thought when they are designed. Robots must be simple to use and be able to interact effectively with their operators to perform their tasks reliably and efficiently
The Robot’s Mobility
For a robot to complete a task, it must be able to navigate its environment. Locomotion is the term used in robotics to describe this type of movement. Robotic mobility can be achieved in a variety of methods.
Replicating human movement is a feature of some robots, such as those used in manufacturing or those whose design is based on human structure. Flying robots and surveillance drones make use of a variety of propulsion technologies, including propellers. To move, other robots, such as the rovers on Mars and other planets, require wheels.
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So to speak, how an engineer designs a robot’s mobility system is typically determined by the environment in which it will be utilized.
Effectors and Manipulators
Mechanics and effectors are necessary for any robot to interact with its environment. It has components that allow it to collect objects that are not part of the system and change the location of items that are not part of the system.
A man-like robot will use appendages and fingers like things that operate like human hands to do jobs. Pincers, claws, and pushers are the most common industrial depictions of manipulators and effectors, all of which are designed to move heavy machinery or materials.
Programming is the language that an operator communicates with the robot. Any activity that a robot was required to accomplish in the past had to be programmed. Robotic systems can now learn and adapt to changes in their environment thanks to sophisticated programming, which is a truly incredible feat of engineering.
In general, the operator can provide commands to the robot in real-time or set it to perform planned activities in a predetermined order independently.
Each robot may be programmed using over a thousand different programming languages, regardless of how the directions are supplied.
Perception and Sensing
Robots use sensors to collect data. This information tells the robot how much physical space it has, where it has to travel, and whether or not there are any impediments in its way. The robot’s sensors also gather information about the objects it encounters to help it decide how to respond to them.
For decision-making accuracy, a suitable sensor must be selected for each robot application.
Use in Electronics and Semi-Conductors Sector
Electronic robotics assists most industrial applications, where parts are less brittle than those used in electronics and semiconductor businesses. Smaller components necessitate more precise gripper designs. Grippers must withstand higher inertia due to process speeds. Because electronics parts are so small, accuracy and exactness in parts placement are critical.
Speed isn’t enough in semiconductor and electrical applications. The robot must be swift and gentle when handling semiconductors to prevent physically presenting micro-cracks or hurting thin products. The danger of direct human labor damage grows as semiconductor parts grow smaller.
Cleanroom procedures are required for a wide range of electronic and semiconductor applications. Cleaner robots with reduced footprints and tinier controllers that consume less power are the latest trends in robotics for the electronics industry.
There is a lot more to a clean room than simply the robot. More particles are shed by moving robots at high speeds, and it isn’t easy to create fast-moving robots that keep their cleanroom certification.
A robot must be integrated into a sterile environment to keep its cleanroom certification. For semiconductor production, cleanroom requirements are extremely stringent. A cleanroom environment is required for the transportation of semiconductor manufacturing robots, so they must be packaged and transported in a way that prevents them from picking up any particles.
It’s important to keep the robot’s cleanroom certification intact before it arrives at the integration site. Removing the protective bag on a non-cleanroom factory floor voids that certification. The robot, to regain its cleanroom certification, must undergo a thorough cleaning procedure.
The robot’s performance is unaffected by operating in a cleanroom. A further challenge is minimizing the robot’s influence on the cleanroom. Coatings and lubricants are utilized to reduce the risk of contamination from robots in clean locations to meet these problems.
Robotics has made available robots that assist humans in many ways, including teaching, investigating hard-to survive areas, and handling dangerous materials and activities. The machines can move, communicate well with users, assemble and pick items.
Still, care and exactness are paramount in the electronics and semiconductor business, where microchips and other tiny and fragile parts are assembled.
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