There are two basic forms of targeted drug delivery. Passive targeting targets systemic circulation, while active targeting targets an organ or tissue. Active targeting involves altering the drug-carrier system’s natural distribution pattern to target a specific organ. Both types of delivery systems depend on biocompatibility and localization of the initial drug delivery. Passive targeting involves the use of NPs. Nanoparticles are highly biocompatible and stable, so they can be used in multiple ways. Passive targeting relies on the properties of NPs that facilitate a high degree of drug accumulation in the target site. However, both forms of delivery systems are still in the clinical trial stages.
Targeted drug delivery methods for treating neurodegenerative diseases include drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier. They have the advantage of minimizing the need for multiple medications, as compared to other delivery methods. The use of nanomedicine has become a common approach to improving the efficacy and safety profile of drugs.
As per report published by Coherent Market Insights, Targeted Drug Delivery Market is estimated to be valued at US$ 6,960 million in 2022 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 15.9% over the forecast period (2022-2030).
Nanotechnology has also greatly improved drug formulation. Targeted drug delivery systems can improve the pharmacokinetics and bio-distribution of therapeutic agents. Nanodrug delivery systems can be designed to increase the bioavailability and defend the drug molecules from degradation. As drug carriers, nanoparticles, resealed erythrocytes, niosomes, and monoclonal antibodies have been investigated as drug carriers. For instance, in September 2020, according to a study conducted by Teikyo University, Japan, demonstrating brain-targeted drug delivery can be effective when a concentration of lipid-based microbubbles is used.
A specialized type of epithelial cell known as the M cell is the ideal candidate for targeted drug delivery. These cells play a sentinel role in the gastrointestinal immune system and transport luminal antigens to underlying immune cells. Nanoparticle drug delivery systems can use this pathway. However, since enterocytes lack M cells, transcellular targeting of nanoparticles is difficult, and the M cell is not present in sufficient numbers to deliver drugs through this route.
In addition to cellular uptake and mucosal interaction, nanoparticles can help target drugs with improved local and systemic absorption. High drug concentrations in the stomach are beneficial for local diseases such as Helicobacter pylori and bacterial infections. This method has the potential to significantly increase the efficiency of targeted drug delivery in the digestive tract.