Therapeutic proteins and oral vaccines are molecules that replace abnormal proteins in the body and/or increase beneficial proteins in the body. Such molecules have been developed to reduce the effects of disease, chemotherapy, or other treatments. Some TPs are very similar to naturally occurring proteins, while others are enhanced with various sugars or other molecules.
The development of therapeutic proteins and oral vaccines is hampered by the difficulty of avoiding mucosal tolerance in the gut, a barrier that is essential for pathology prevention. The use of VSP-pseudotyped vaccinia polysaccharides (VLPs), which contain intact antigens and strong adjuvant properties, is an alternative approach. The immune response induced by these vaccines consists of a combination of humoral and cellular mechanisms. For instance, protective immunological responses to live virus infection and the killing of tumor cells are very different.
Therapeutic proteins and oral vaccines are absorbed by the digestive tract’s immune system, or GALT, which is a complex network of lymphoid cells that are involved in immunity. In addition, antigen-induced cells in GALT migrate into the circulation, colonize the mucosa, and form a protective immune response. Since oral vaccines are delivered orally, they result in local and systemic immunity. And, unlike vaccines administered via the bloodstream, oral vaccination does not require trained medical personnel, which reduces potential risks associated with needles. Furthermore, oral vaccines have higher compliance rates compared to injections.
As per report published by Coherent Market Insights, Therapeutic Proteins and Oral Vaccines Market size is estimated to be valued at US$ 201,042.7 million in 2020 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 6.7% over the forecast period (2020-2027).
In contrast to injectable vaccines, therapeutic proteins and oral vaccines are more easily accepted in low-income countries since they are administered in liquid form. These liquid immunizations may stimulate local immunity in the gut, which is essential in fending off contaminated food and water. They may also prevent environmental enteric dysfunction. They may be the ideal way to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases. This is a new way to increase the population’s immunity in low-income countries.
In addition to the development of therapeutic proteins and oral vaccines, the use of algae to produce them has also made them affordable and practical. Algae have proved to be a useful low-cost system for vaccine production, as they do not require expensive purification and injection. In one study, researchers engineered the chloroplast of eukaryotic algae to produce a chimeric protein consisting of the b-subunit of cholera toxin. After the transformation, the chimeric protein was then used to investigate the development of an oral vaccine.
Therapeutic proteins and oral vaccines are engineered proteins that are designed for pharmaceutical applications. Examples of therapeutic proteins include non-covalent binders, enzymes, and albumin. In contrast, oral vaccines are biologically prepared products that provide active acquired immunity against disease-causing microorganisms. The ingredients in oral vaccines are usually derived from the disease-causing microorganisms. The proteins in these vaccines may be surface-proteins or toxins.
There are a variety of challenges associated with the development of effective therapeutic proteins and oral vaccines. One hurdle is insufficient expression levels of antigens in edible plant systems. These barriers, however, do not prevent adequate oral vaccination. The main goal of oral vaccine development is to increase the immune response to a disease by stimulating both the mucosal immune system and systemic immunity. Several plant-based oral vaccines have been successfully developed, but many of these vaccines do not show protective efficacy in animal models. The use of edible plants by humans may pose additional challenges.