Pneumococcal Vaccination is crucial for individuals at high risk for the disease. Those 65 years of age and older, as well as people with certain underlying conditions, should ask their doctor about getting vaccinated. The highest mortality rate for the pneumococcal disease is due to invasive pneumonia, and the vaccine is vital for preventing this serious condition.
The first pneumococcal vaccine, which was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1977, included 14 polysaccharide antigens. Newer pneumococcal vaccines have included up to 23 polysaccharide antigens, as well as diphtheria proteins. By 2010, there are 13 serotypes of P. pneumoniae, and most people should receive at least one dose of the first two.
There are two major types of vaccines available, the polysaccharide vaccine and the non-polysaccharide one. Both of them target the capsular polysaccharides. The polysaccharide vaccine is able to elicit a protective immune response by triggering an inflammatory response. However, the vaccines cannot protect against all serotypes.
According to Coherent Market Insights, the global pneumococcal vaccines market size was valued at US$ 6,615.94 Million in 2022 and is expected to witness a CAGR of 4.4% over the forecast period (2022 – 2030).
The most common side effects of pneumococcal vaccinations are injection site reactions. The 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine causes pain, swelling, induration, and redness at the injection site. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines cause similar side effects. Injection site reactions usually resolve on their own within three to four days, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and warm compresses can help alleviate the pain.
One of the most effective is the polysaccharide vaccine, which contains 23 purified capsular polysaccharide antigens from S. pneumoniae. It protects against 88 percent of the strains found in the United States. This vaccine includes six serotypes, and was licensed in the U.S. in 1983.
The recommended age for vaccination of infants and children with certain risk factors is two years. It is recommended that infants and children with underlying medical conditions get a PCV13 vaccine. This vaccine should be administered before the PPSV23 vaccine. This vaccine is a combination of two vaccines that can protect against both serotypes of pneumococcal disease. A child should receive both vaccines.
There are many advantages of pneumococcal vaccines. In addition to protecting infants and children against pneumococcal disease, this vaccine helps prevent pneumonia. It contains the capsular polysaccharides of the seven major pneumococcal types and protects against the majority of cases in adults. A study of adults found that the vaccines protected against type 2 and three serotypes.
Pneumococcal disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. It can cause meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia. Even if a person does not develop pneumococcal disease, they can spread the bacteria through droplets in the air. It is estimated that 6,000 people die from the disease each year in the United States. Nearly half of those who develop the disease are adults who should have been vaccinated.
While Pneumococcal vaccines can protect against pneumococcal disease, adults who have certain medical conditions or are 65 years of age, or have a history of pneumococcal disease should get PCV15 and PPSV23. These vaccines should be given in series. The recommended time interval between each dose is eight weeks.