Often, treatment resistant depression is caused by a variety of factors. Some of these include the use of medications for depression that does not work well, the presence of genetic disorders, and other factors. However, there are other treatments that do work, and some patients may benefit from them. These include lithium addition, electroconvulsive therapy, and Psilocybin. ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) is used to treat severe depression and other psychiatric disorders. It is often considered a last resort, but it can be an effective treatment for treatment resistant depression. It is often used in patients who have not responded to antidepressants or psychotherapy.
ECT is a form of shock therapy, in which electrical currents are sent through the brain to induce seizures. It has been used to treat serious mental illnesses for more than 75 years. The therapies for treatment resistant depression are still controversial, however, and the mechanism of action remains unclear. TMS, or transcranial magnetic stimulation, is an alternative treatment for severe depression. It is administered by a trained paraprofessional. It uses a powerful MRI-strength magnetic coil to stimulate regions of the brain with sluggish neuronal activity. The sessions are usually administered five days per week for six weeks.
Latest report available at Coherent Market Insights indicates that, global treatment resistant depression market is estimated to be valued at US$ 1,180.0 Mn in 2022 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 3.4% over the forecast period (2022-2030).
Electroconvulsive therapy treatment resistant depression can be used to treat depression, but the mechanism of action is not well understood. In some cases, a patient may need only a few treatments to achieve remission. In others, a course of ECT may involve as many as 20 treatments. Among treatment resistant depression (TRD) patients, ketamine and esketamine appear to be effective. The efficacy of these two drugs is consistent with the glutamate hypothesis of major depressive disorder. However, further randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods are needed.
The safety of ketamine and esketamine is also a matter of concern. While both medications are generally safe, they are not free from adverse effects. Some of these include dissociative symptoms, psychotomimetic effects, and generalized numbness. These AEs are generally transient, but the presence of a care team may help to alleviate some of these side effects. In the ketamine group, the incidence of these AEs was lower than in other studies. But, after full treatment resistant depression treatment, these AEs did not appear to predict whether the patient was in a treatment response or not. Similarly, the BDNF levels were not predictive of the patient’s treatment response. BDNF levels were assessed in 53 TRD patients prior to the infusion and 7 days after the infusion.
Psychedelics are a class of drugs that can produce some impressive results in the field of mental health. Psilocybin is one of the most studied compounds in this field and several clinical trials are underway in both North America and Europe. In this psilocybin for treatment resistant depression review, we will discuss the latest research and what the findings mean for psychiatric patients. Psilocybin is a psychoactive compound derived from mushrooms. In some studies, this drug has been shown to alleviate anxiety symptoms and reduce depressive symptoms for up to three weeks. Although a few studies have shown promising results, more research is needed. This psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression review will highlight the key research on psilocybin’s pharmacodynamics and neuropharmacology.